The Fight to Make Education a Guaranteed Right: Chilean Students vs. the Nation’s President

 

  • Education reform at primary, secondary, and university levels in Chile is a longstanding social and political issue that has now forced President Sebastián Piñera to reassess the country’s antiquated and class-ridden education system to meet the expectations of students.
  • In a collective effort aimed at widespread reform, protesters have demanded greater transparency and state control, and above all, have insisted upon quality education without high university tuition costs.
  • While the Piñera administration’s attempts to pacify protesters have led to further social unrest, the nation and its students await an acceptable agreement to be reached.

After approximately three months of school takeovers, strikes, and nationwide marches throughout Chile, the unflagging persistence of demonstrators may prove decisive in the ongoing fight against unjust education standards that has taken the nation and its administrative cadres by storm. Years of extreme discontent with the Chilean education system have driven students and teachers alike to demand national education reform that would ultimately ensure a quality, affordable education for all. The latest demonstration took place in the nation’s capital on August 21and involved over 500,000 protesters, contributing to the mounting political pressure on the Piñera administration. Braving the police force’s water cannons, tear gas, and anti-riot gear, hundreds of thousands of students, teachers, and sympathizers are stomping throughout Santiago and other cities, applying pressure on the Chilean government to respond to their demands.

History Begins to Repeat Itself

The Chilean school system has been subject to acrid criticism and student protest since the initial decentralization and partial privatization of primary and secondary schools in 1981. Under the harsh dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet, funding for university level education dramatically decreased. Accordingly, universities were obligated to counter the shortage of funds with higher tuition fees. The dictatorship adhered to the neoliberal belief that students should essentially “pay for the private returns they got from their investment in higher education” and the perception that universities would become a perilous political threat to Pinochet and his regime.[1] In conjunction with the establishment of for-profit, private universities, the lack of comprehensive reforms for university level education following Pinochet’s regime has divided prospective students on the basis of personal wealth, creating a sharp disparity in the quality of education a student receives from private versus public schools.[2]

Nearly three decades later, President Michelle Bachelet, though relatively popular during her presidency, also faced student protests concerning Chile’s unjust education system. This discontent manifested into a movement known as “The March of the Penguins” in 2006, which called upon the Bachelet administration to respond with appropriate reforms. To appease demonstrators, she established El Consejo Asesor Presidencial para la Calidad de la Educación (Presidential Advisory Council for Quality Education), a commission to monitor the progress of the nation’s education system and passed La Ley General de Educación (General Law on Education). St. Bonaventure University Professor Mary Rose Kubal noted that while the Bachelet administration was optimistic about the outcome of the reforms, the lack of “major changes in the structure of Chile’s segmented education system [were] unlikely [to] improve the overall equity of the system.”[3]

The underlying cause of Chile’s protracted education system issues stems from the reality that the constitution does not explicitly mandate the state to provide quality education to its citizens.[4] The neoliberal model that exists in Chile has exacerbated problems in the education system because of the establishment of subsidized and private primary and secondary schools, which created competition for state funding with public schools. In addition, while reforms have established a greater number of private, non-profit universities, they have yet to address core structural issues and have instead deepened inequality and social segregation.[5]

The National Council of Education found that within the past six years, the average tuition cost rose by 26 percent at public universities, distinguishing “tuition in Chile [as] among the most expensive in the world in relation to its GDP, the costs of tuition, and costs of living.”[6] These figures have led to heavy criticism of Piñera, as well as to rising discontent with Chile’s education system that ultimately illustrates the center-right’s diminishing popularity. Recent polls conclude that a meager 35 percent of Chileans are pleased with Piñera’s performance — an all-time low since the nation’s shift to democracy in 1990 and incomparable to his 63 percent approval rating in 2010 after the historic rescue of Chilean miners.[7] Guillermo Teillier, president of the Partido Comunista de Chile, suggests a possible “way [to move] forward would be to introduce the constitutional right to hold plebiscites.”[8]

The Rebirth of Student Discontent

The battle for profound change within Chile’s education system has now been revived by hundreds of thousands of students, teachers, and sympathizers who refuse to further endure the country’s existing social inequalities. Protests arose anew in April and June of this year, “resulting in the occupation of over 200 schools and universities, weeks of lost classes, and a

3,000-person choreographed performance of Michael Jackson’s ‘Thriller’” to imply that Chile’s education system is, without a doubt, dead.[9]

To regain the country’s trust, Piñera proposed the Gran Acuerdo Nacional por la Educación (GANE), pledging USD 4 billion for student scholarships and loans, yet the pitch still left dissidents unsatisfied. GANE called for a total investment of about USD 10 billion, a considerable amount for a country whose annual national budget for education is only USD 11.5 billion.[10] The proposal also required the legalization of for-profit colleges, which raised concern amongst protesters over the government’s intent to use the education system for profit.

Following Piñera’s GANE proposal, Minister of Education Felipe Bulnes introduced a 21-point plan on August 1 that students also rejected and considered “nothing radical or extraordinary.”[11] The proposal entailed greater monitoring of public school academic performances, greater funding for traditional public universities, and additional financing for higher education commensurate with performance and development. In a similar reaction to the GANE proposal, protesters deemed Bulnes’ plan unsatisfactory and ambiguous.

On August 16, after several meetings with Bulnes, Piñera issued a new proposal in hopes of easing the restlessness of Chilean student protesters. In response to student petitions for free education for roughly 70 percent of Chilean students, the president’s new proposal promises more federal scholarships to low-income students and a reprogram of college credit.[12] Moreover, eligible students would be granted full or partial waivers for accrued penal interest from government loans. While students have yet to react to this newly-proposed initiative, it is certain that they will continue to require more details as to how the government plans to improve and finance the nation’s education system.

Government Attempts Fail as Protesters Refuse to Back Down

For the past few months, Chile’s aspirant youth — a rising political class — have expressed their grievances about the country’s inherently flawed and structurally unequal education system and about a president who fails to respond to their demands. Fearless citizens have participated in organized protests and hunger strikes to raise awareness for their cause. On August 4, during one of the most violent protests to date, police attempted to dispel the thousands of protesting participants with tear gas and water cannons. Approximately 900 people were detained while a handful of police officers and protesters were injured.[13] The aggressive, yet understandable demonstration led to the eruption of flames throughout the capital and the loud banging of pots and pans in the streets, proving to the nation that even repression will not undermine the overarching student movement.

What began as a fair warning to the Chilean government of the students’ demands pertaining to all education levels has now transformed into an unrelenting political force that calls for constitutional and structural reform. At all levels of education, today’s student protesters fervently challenge market-driven, for-profit, public schools and universities. Meanwhile, university students also take issue with the government’s management of student loans and the lack of equity in the university admissions process. Further demands include scholarships for lower and middle-class students and year-round bus passes.[14] After numerous hours of failed negotiations between interior minister Rodrigo Hinzpeter, teachers’ union leader Jaime Gajardo, and president of the Federation of Chilean Students (FECH) Camila Vallejo, plans for further demonstrations and strikes remain unchanged.[15]

With labor unions like the Central Unitaria de Trabajadores de Chile (CUT) and prominent leaders like progressive leftist Marco Enríquez-Ominami of the Partido Progresista de Chile supporting the protests, the Piñera administration faces increasing pressure to resolve political unrest. This additional support from labor unions and their leaders is an impetus for the ongoing movement and places students in an advantageous position for demanding constitutional reform. The continuing protests are forcing the government to develop a fair and effective solution that meets the demands of the politically marginalized.

Conclusion: Is it all Worth the Fight?

While the government is finally starting to recognize the country’s youth as a politically influential and relevant faction, the impact of the current education reform protests remains to be seen. Piñera proclaimed that it is time to “move forward from diagnosis to solutions, from protest to action.”[16] Despite the president’s declared commitment to progress, the government’s futile efforts to pacify demonstrators indicate that protesters will not withdraw until quality education is a guaranteed right for all Chileans.

The administration’s failed attempts at negotiation with student leaders thus far show that the conflict will not be resolved in the near future. With the sweeping social movement and its needs unfulfilled, the only assurance for the future is that Chile’s economy remains unscathed. Financial analysts like Enrique Alvarez of IDEAglobal agree that international markets perceive Chile as a nation with “a stable, credible economy,” and it is highly unlikely that the student protests will be a detriment to the nation’s economic status.[17]

Is the violence that has ensued from student demonstrations worth the fight? Reports from the Inter-American Commission for Human Rights condemn Chile’s police violence and government repression. There is no question that the government’s attempts to quell protests violate students’ constitutional right to free speech.[18] Countless lost hours of teaching and learning, hundreds of arrests and injuries, and more than USD 2 million in damages later, the Piñera administration still struggles to reach an agreement with student leaders.[19] The ongoing education reform reveals flaws in Chile’s democracy and the government’s paralyzing incompetence in addressing these challenges.

Threatened by often violent protests and demonstrations resulting in damages and threats to national tranquility, the government now seems willing to embark on a path toward instituting a series of constitutional reforms. There is no indication that the unwavering coalition of students, teachers, and sympathizers are backing down. Protesters have gone to extreme measures by participating in school takeovers, demonstrations, and even hunger strikes to warn the government that the movement will not falter until its demands are met. As the nation waits, in observance of this historic movement unfolding before their eyes, the efforts of Chilean protesters who seek a national education reform for greater access to educational opportunities and a brighter future for Chilean youth will no longer remain unnoticed.

References for this article can be found here


Source: Euronews

7 thoughts on “The Fight to Make Education a Guaranteed Right: Chilean Students vs. the Nation’s President

  • August 24, 2011 at 10:56 pm
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    that exactly what Haiti needs today. after people likeDe Latour skewed thee political efforts of the Haitian people, now we have a group who wants to govern with no negotiation skills and will to negotiate meaning the present government thinks as they are gods, the neoliberal theory has shown to be wrong and is not to the interest of the Haitian people. We must stop all neoliberals tendency in Haiti. The Haitian people must wake up. the imperialists are done, and dictatorship is not going anywhere, The chileans students a re a model for Haiti's survival.Haiti needs to be in the Center to face the multinational corporation and Globalisation. Haitian students
    where are you?

    Reply
  • August 25, 2011 at 8:52 am
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    Yes, I agree with Dr. Frantz Delva: the Chilean students should be regarded as a model, but not only for Haitian students but also for all those who are world-wide suffering from neo-liberal conditions. I cannot avoid asking: Who was the original initiator of this misanthopic system? Which country arranged coups against democratically elected presidents like Salvador Alliende and supported dictators like Pinochet?
    Which country is punishing Cuba until now, the model for education in Latin America if not for the entire world, by putting in newly on the list of rogue states?
    Additionally, would like to urge the COHA staff again to join the campaign to free the "Cuban Five" by their articles.

    Reply
  • August 26, 2011 at 7:39 am
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    You write: Threatened by often violent protests and demonstrations resulting in damages and threats to national tranquility"

    First I acknowledge I am an expat living and watching the events unfold here in Chile. I appreciate your analysis of the issues but note there are bits of reality that seem to be omitted. While the issues are demonstrated in a relatively peaceful manner and with great theater- with a Mardis Gras flavor- there is an element within that is there for the opportunity for pure destruction and ravaging of business and innocent people which in someways is reminiscent of the recent wanton destruction of the youth in England. What amazes me is the destruction is in the same neighborhoods (older, less affluent) that they are hoping to improve. Schools have been totally destroyed, their materials (computers) stolen in their "take over." They attempted to burn a church to the ground (during the 2-day parro/national strike this Wednesday and Thursday).

    While there are serious issues that need to be addressed- in Chile, specifically the clarification of education's purpose: are the services a business or a social obligation/right and either case how will the services be funded- the destruction of the community and its people is not the way to affect change. The government has invited the protesters to come to the table and dialogue and work out a new plan. They have chosen to refuse efforts to work towards that change and instead lash out much as a two year old would in a temper tantrum.

    Water cannons and teargas came out when the encapuchados (hooded and masked thugs) started to destroy the businesses lining the streets, overturned and burned cars, entered apartment buildings and destroyed – NO terrorized- the lives of the people residing inside. Yes I would be ready to label them terrorists in these cases and well worthy of the right of the government to protect its citizens. The teargas was used to disperse the thugs, the water cannons were used to disperse the mobs. These are not lethal methods- though yes they are not pleasant.

    The very same people who are suffering from the systems these hoodlums wish to change are also suffering the destruction caused by the hoodlums. I find it difficult to comprehend. When a group of people's starting point is zero why cut off your nose to spite your face? Now they must begin again but this time at minus zero.

    I don't discredit the issues and the marches but I am most disconcerted with the lack of management, organization, unification within the peaceful protesters to keep at bay those who have served to discredit them in the eyes of many people- including those who are most affected by the issues of "lucro" and poverty.

    Reply
  • August 26, 2011 at 8:12 am
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    And one other thought- the most import for me. In all of this, no where have I heard any word regarding the rights of children and youth with disabilities and their right to access and equality in schools and community. Ley 20.422 (similar in some ways to the USA's Americans with Disabilities Act) and the UN's Convention on Rights for People with Disabilities are in place in Chile. What is not in place are significant actions to make education for children with disabilities inclusive, accessible and the teachers trained to understand and accept them as valued students capable of learning that they may eventually qualify for employment and live as a member in their community.

    Reply
  • August 27, 2011 at 5:12 am
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    I appreciate the objections of "Donna Martínez" very much, additionally I share her opinion about violate actions, as well as her complaining the disregarded need of children and handicapped people. Violation of human rights cannot be a model for any one.
    However, history shows, for instance since the French Revolution, that if people feel exploited and disregarded by their government only long enough by having no perspectiv of improvement – alledgedly, Queen Marie Antoinette had said: "people have no bread, why don't they eat cake?" – such attitude works like a tinderbox or powder keg.
    During my own life, I observed how originally intelligent and peace-loving people arguing by good causes were driven by violation into the underground and into delinquency by an egoistic etablishment in Germany during the so-called '68s.
    By now, we can observe in the United Kingdom and in a alleviated way in Germany too that those underprivileged young people having lost any perspectiv of a living in dignity don't care for any social agreements any more, there model is the warfare of the Super Powers. "Freedom is just another word for nothing left to lose!"

    Reply
  • August 27, 2011 at 5:18 am
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    I want to stress yet to my first comment when mentioning the case of the "Cuban Five". They came into the USA in the '90s without arms risking their lives among terrorist groups in South Florida for preventin further terrorist acts against their people, saving lives not only of their compatriots, but also those of US citizens, see http://www.freethefive.org ..

    Reply
  • April 13, 2013 at 11:53 am
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    Interesting story and a good read. Some interesting parallels with education problems and reform in the U.S. – like decreased funding for universities, subsidized schools competing with public schools, etc. Too bad American students can't sustain this level of protest.

    Reply

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