Senior Research Fellows
Dr. James A. Baer
James Baer is a professor of history at the Alexandria Campus of Northern Virginia Community College. He received his Ph.D. from Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey. He received a Fellowship for College Teachers from the National Endowment for the Humanities, served as the Virginia Chancellor’s Commonwealth Professor, and was awarded the Harold Eugene Davis Prize for best article by the Middle Atlantic Council on Latin American Studies (MACLAS). Dr. Baer is the author of several articles on Argentine social history. He co-edited Cities of Hope: People, Protests, and Progress in Urbanizing Latin America, 1870-1930, with Ronn Pineo, another COHA Senior Research Fellow. His book, Anarchist Immigrants in Spain and Argentina, published by the University of Illinois Press, is a transnational study of anarchists and their impact on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean. Dr. Baer is currently working with a Cuban scholar on a study of Protestant groups in Cuba and their unique relationship with the United States.
Dr. Lynn Holland
Lynn Holland received her PhD in political science from the University of California at Los Angeles and teaches at the Josef Korbel School of International Studies (JKSIS) at the University of Denver where she specializes in international political economy and Latin American Studies. She has written on violence and conflict in Central America, land rights in rural areas of Honduras and Peru, authoritarianism in Honduras, the politics of deportation in the U.S., and the origins and transnational impacts of the war on drugs. Her research has taken her to Nicaragua, Honduras, Costa Rica, Panama, Cuba, Bolivia and Peru. Her articles have appeared in Contemporary Justice Review, Journal of Latin American Studies, International Affairs Forum, Carnegie Ethics Online, Foreign Policy in Focus, and History News. Her courses include International Political Economy, Political Economic Development in Latin America, Democracy and Militarism in Latin America and Illicit Markets in the Americas. She is an editorial member of the recently founded Journal of Trafficking, Organized Crime and Security, a faculty fellow at the Human Trafficking Center at JKSIS, and member of the Denver Justice and Peace Committee (DJPC). She was the recipient of the Ruth Murray Underhill Teaching award in 2011.
Dr. Roland Benedikter
Dr. Roland Benedikter is a European Public Intellectual, Political Scientist and Sociologist serving as Research Scholar at the Orfalea Center for Global and International Studies at the University of California, Santa Barbara. Additionally, he is an Affiliate Scholar at the Stanford Center of Latin American Studies (CLAS), Stanford University. Dr. Benedikter holds two doctorates from the Free University of Berlin and one from the University of Innsbruck. He is also a Full Academic Fellow of the Potomac Institute for Policy Studies in Washington, D.C., as well as a Trustee of the Toynbee Prize Foundation in Boston. Furthermore, he serves as an Affiliate of the Edmund Pellegrino Center of Georgetown University in Washington, D.C. and as a Full member of the Club of Rome. Previously he served as Research Affiliate (2009-2013) at the Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies at Stanford University. He has authored more than 200 publications which have been translated into seven languages. He has been writing for Foreign Affairs, Harvard International Review (where he is member of the Advisory Board), Global Policy, The National Interest, European Foreign Affairs Review, New Global Studies, and Challenge: The Magazine of Economic Affairs. He is a frequent commentator for the German newspaper Die Welt Berlin and the international commentary magazine, The European. He is co-author of two Pentagon and U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff White Papers on the ethics of neurotechnology and neurowarfare (February 2013 and April 2014) and of Ernst Ulrich von Weizsäcker’s Limits of Privation (Report to the Club of Rome, 2003).
Dr. Steven J. Hirsch
Dr. Steven J. Hirsch is a Professor of Practice in the International and Area Studies Department at Washington University in St. Louis. He received a M.A. in Latin American Studies at the University of Texas at Austin and a Ph.D. in Latin American History at George Washington University. Dr. Hirsch’s research focuses on Latin American populism and neopopulism, and, anarchism, labor, and politics in Peru and the Andean region. His recent publications include: Anarchism and Syndicalism in the Colonial and Post-Colonial World, 1870-1940, 2nd edition (2013); “Anarchism, the Subaltern, and Repertoires of Resistance in Northern Peru, 1898-1922,” in No Gods, No Masters, No Peripheries: Global Anarchisms (2015); and “Anarchist Visions of Race and Space in Northern Perú, 1898-1922,” in, In Defiance of Boundaries: Anarchism in Latin American History (2015). Dr. Hirsch’s forthcoming publications include: Study, Organize, Rebel: Anarchism and the Struggle for Working-Class Emancipation in Perú, 1898-1932,” and, Anarchists, Marxists, and Nationalists in the Colonial and Postcolonial World, 1870s-1940s: Antagonisms, Solidarities, and Syntheses, co-edited with Dr. Lucien van der Walt.
Dr. Charles H. Blake
Charles Blake is a Professor of Political Science at James Madison University. He earned his undergraduate degree from Davidson College and the Ph.D. in political science from Duke University. He received the JMU Alumni Association’s Distinguished Faculty Award in 2012 and was a co-recipient of the Provost’s Award for Contributions to the Liberal Arts in 2011. His research agenda examines the dynamics of socioeconomic policies and the pursuit of greater governing transparency and accountability in Latin America. He has field experience at research institutes and universities in Argentina, Italy, Mexico, Spain, and Uruguay. His research has been supported by the Fulbright program, the Organization of American States, and the Tinker Foundation. With Stephen Morris, Dr. Blake has co-edited two volumes on corruption dynamics — Corruption and Democracy in Latin America (University of Pittsburgh Press, 2009) and Corruption and Politics in Latin America: Regional and National Dynamics (Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2010). His research has been published in various academic journals, including Comparative Political Studies; Democratization; Journal of Inter-American Studies & World Affairs; The Review of International Political Economy; and Studies in Comparative International Development. His research in progress examines the relationship between federalism and mechanisms of horizontal, societal, and vertical accountability.
Dr. Sean Burges
Sean W. Burges holds a Ph.D. in Politics & International Studies from the University of Warwick, England. He is currently an Adjunct Professor with the School of Political Studies at the University of Ottawa. His research interests focus on Brazilian foreign policy, inter-American affairs, and emerging market countries (BRICs) in world affairs, with special reference to trade and foreign aid. He is the author of Brazilian Foreign Policy After the Cold War (University Press of Florida, 2009), and has published on Brazil, inter-American affairs, and democratization in International Relations, Third World Quarterly, The Bulletin of Latin American Research, The Canadian Journal of Latin American and Caribbean Studies, Canadian Foreign Policy, International Journal, and The Cambridge Review of International Affairs, as well as in edited volumes with Johns Hopkins University Press and Palgrave Macmillan. His news and editorial contributions have been made to Swiss National Radio, the BBC World Service, The National Post, Miami Herald, Journal of Commerce, Financial Post, Washington Post, Washington Times, Maclean’s, Brazil Magazine, FOCAL Point, and Military Review. Burges is currently working on the tension between the OECD member countries and BRIC countries in the new international economic and aid governance order, as well as an extended research project on the state-business nexus in contemporary Brazilian development policy.
Originally from Venezuela, William studied at Queens College where he obtained two masters degrees- one in Fine Arts and another one in Latin-American Literature. He is the co-founder and coordinator of the Alberto Lovera Bolivarian Circle of New York and is an artist, radio host at pacifica network WBAI New York, and activist in New York City.
Dr. Greg Grandin
Greg Grandin is a Professor at New York University and the author of a number of prize-winning books, including most recently “The Empire of Necessity: Slavery, Freedom, and Deception in the New World,” which won the Bancroft Prize in American History and was shortlisted for the Samuel Johnson Prize in the UK. NPR’s Maureen Corrigan on Fresh Air named The Empire of Necessity as the best book of 2014, both non-fiction and fiction. “Fordlandia: The Rise and Fall of Henry Ford’s Forgotten Jungle City” was a finalist for the Pulitzer Prize in History, as well as for the National Book Award and the National Book Critics Circle Award and was picked by the New York Times, New Yorker, Boston Globe, Chicago Tribune and NPR for their “best of” lists, and Amazon.com named it the best history book of 2009. Grandin’s other books include “Empire’s Workshop, The Last Colonial Massacre, The Blood of Guatemala,” and the co-edited (with Gil Joseph) anthology, “A Century of Revolution: Insurgent and Counterinsurgent Violence during Latin America’s Long Cold War.” A professor of history at NYU and a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Grandin writes on American Exceptionalism, US foreign policy, Latin America, genocide, and human rights. He has published in The New York Times, Harper’s, The London Review of Books, The Nation, The Boston Review, The Los Angeles Times, and The American Historical Review. He has been a frequent guest on Democracy Now! and has appeared on The Charlie Rose Show. Grandin also served as a consultant to the United Nations truth commission on Guatemala and has been the recipient of a number of prestigious fellowships, including the John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Fellowship and the New York Public Library’s Cullman Center for Scholars and Writers.
Louise Højen specializes in Development and International Relations focusing on Latin American affairs. She is currently finishing her Master of Social Science at Aalborg University in Northern Denmark and holds a BA in Spanish and International Studies from the same university. She is a dedicated philanthropist and supporter of Fundación Internacional Tierra Fértil (FUNTIFER), a small NGO working in the slums of Bogotá, Colombia to enhance the lives of numerous internally displaced persons. In 2013, she spent 2 months working voluntarily for AIESEC at a public school in Usme, a poor neighborhood in Bogotá, where she met FUNTIFER’s founder. She has since then worked closely with the NGO and raised thousands of dollars for them. Louise is also a former Research Associate at COHA and has published several articles during her time in Washington, D.C. As an emerging academic, she holds a broad field of interests related to Latin America. Furthermore, she is especially attentive to human rights violations, the repression of freedom of speech, and geopolitics. She is currently writing her MA thesis on the U.S. sanctions of December 2015 against Venezuelan officials.
Dr. Odeen Ishmael
Dr. Odeen Ishmael, Ambassador Emeritus and historian, served as Guyana’s ambassador to the United States (1993-2003) while simultaneously functioning as his country’s permanent representative to the Organization of American States (OAS), to which he was Chairman on two separate periods. He was also ambassador to Venezuela (2003-2011) and to Kuwait (2011-2014). In addition, he has represented Guyana at the United Nations, in the Summit of the Americas process (up to 2003), and at the Union of South American Nations (UNASUR). Between 2003 and 2011, Dr. Ishmael served as the head of Guyana’s delegation to the Caracas-headquartered Latin American and Caribbean Economic System (SELA), eventually being elected as its Chairman (2009-2010). He was awarded one of Guyana’s highest honors, the Cacique Crown of Honor (1997), and the Martin Luther King Legacy Award for International Service (2002). Some of his authored books include: The Democracy Perspective in the Americas, The Guyana Story – From Earliest Times to Independence, and The Trail of Diplomacy – The Guyana-Venezuela Border Issue.
Dr. Mark S. Langevin
Mark S. Langevin is the director of BrazilWorks, an adjunct Professor at George Washington University’s Elliot School of International Affairs and George Mason University’s School of Policy, Government and International Affairs, and a visiting Professor at UniCEUB in Brasília. Dr. Langevin researches and writes extensively on Brazilian energy policymaking and United States-Brazil relations. He is a regular contributor to such publications as: American Diplomacy, Boletim Meridiano 47, Brazil, the Inter-American Dialogue’s Latin American Advisor, Journal of Energy Security, the Labor Studies Journal, Review of Renewable Energy Law and Policy,and Universitas: Relações Internacionais. Dr. Langevin earned a Ph.D. in Political Science and a M.A. in Latin American Studies from the University of Arizona in Tucson. He also graduated with a B.A. in Liberal Arts with a concentration in Public Health from The Evergreen State College in Olympia, WA.
Cynthia McClintock is Professor of Political Science and International Affairs at George Washington University and Director of GWU’s Latin American and Hemispheric Studies Program. She holds the B.A. degree from Harvard University and the Ph.D. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Dr. McClintock was President of the Latin American Studies Association in 1994-95. Also, she was a member of the Council of the American Political Science Association in 1998-2000, and served as the Chair of its Comparative Democratization Section in 2003-05. During 2006-2007, Prof. McClintock was a Fellow at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. Based on her research at the Center, she is writing a book on the implications for democracy of runoff versus plurality rules for the election of the president in Latin America. Prof. McClintock has received fellowships from the U.S. Institute of Peace, Fulbright, and the Social Science Research Council as well as from the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. She has testified before the Subcommittee on Western Hemisphere Affairs of the U.S. House of Representatives and has appeared on a variety of television and radio programs, including the “News Hour with Jim Lehrer,” CNN International, CNN Spanish, National Public Radio, and the Diane Rehm Show.
Siobhan K. McCollum
Siobhan K. McCollum is a Ph.D. candidate in the Social Anthropology department at York University in Toronto. Her research focuses on the cultural politics of the environment, the development of the waterscape, expatriate and lifestyle migration and residential tourism, and land rights in coastal communities. Specifically, her ethnographic fieldwork is located in an indigenous Garifuna village in Belize. Her Masters degree is also from York University and she holds two Bachelors degrees from SUNY College at Buffalo, in Cultural Anthropology and in Broadcasting.
Dr. Philip Oxhorn
Philip Oxhorn is a Professor of Political Science at McGill University and the Founding Director of McGill’s Institute for the Study of International Development, as well as the Editor-in-Chief of the international journal Latin American Research Review. A former Associate Dean (Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies) at McGill, his research focuses on the comparative study of civil society and its role in supporting democratic regimes, particularly in Latin America. Professor Oxhorn’s publications include Sustaining Civil Society: Economic Change, Democracy and the Social Construction of Citizenship in Latin America (Penn State University Press, 2011) and Organizing Civil Society: The Popular Sectors and the Struggle for Democracy in Chile (Penn State University Press, 1995), as well as numerous articles and four co-edited volumes: What Kind of Democracy? What Kind of Market? Latin America in the Age of Neoliberlism (with Graciela Ducatenzeiler, Penn State University Press, 1998), The Market and Democracy In Latin America: Convergence or Divergence? (with Pamela Starr, Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1999), Decentralization, Civil Society, and Democratic Governance: Comparative Perspectives from Latin America, Africa, and Asia (with Joseph Tulchin and Andrew Selee Woodrow Wilson Center Press/the Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004), and Beyond Neoliberalism? Patterns, Responses, and New Directions in Latin America and the Caribbean (with Kenneth Roberts and John Burdick, Palgrave Macmillan, 2009). Professor Oxhorn has lectured extensively in North and South America, Africa,Western Europe, Asia and Australia. He has also worked as a consultant to the Inter-American Development Bank, the United Nations Development Program, the United Nations Population Fund, the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), the International Development Research Centre (IDRC), the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade, Canada, the MasterCard Foundation, Department for Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development, Canada, the Ford Foundation, The Carter Center, the Woodrow Wilson Center for International Scholars, and the Mining Association of Canada. He has a PhD in Political Science from Harvard University.
Terrence E. Paupp J.D.
Terrence E. Paupp is an international law and human rights scholar. He holds a (BA) degree from San Diego State University, a Master of Theological Studies (MTS) from the Lutheran School of Theology at Chicago, and a Juris Doctor (JD) from the University of San Diego School of Law. As a globally recognized legal scholar, Paupp has published over 3,000-pages of articles and books on international law, civil and human rights, peace studies, and international relations. Employing an interdisciplinary approach to global problems, peace-studies, and region-building in Latin America, Asia, Africa, and the Middle East, he has contributed critical analysis and solutions to the problems of exclusionary states versus inclusionary states, poverty, wealth inequality and disparities, illegal hegemonic interventions — as well as the role of the United Nations, NGOs, and human rights organizations and scholars in providing alternatives to the status quo. Paupp’s published books include the following: Achieving Inclusionary Governance: Advancing Peace and Development in First and Third World Nations (Transnational Publishers, Inc., 2000); Exodus From Empire: The Fall of America’s Empire and the Rise of the Global Community (Pluto Press, 2007); The Future of Global Relations: Crumbling Walls, Rising Regions (Palgrave-Macmillan, 2009); Beyond Global Crisis: Remedies and Roadmaps by Daisaku Ikeda and his Contemporaries (Transaction Publishers, 2012); Redefining Human Rights in the Struggle for Peace and Development (Cambridge University Press, 2014); Robert Kennedy in the Stream of History (Transaction Publishers, 2014). Currently, he is working on a new book entitled, From Regional Peace to Global Peace: The ASEAN Security Community as a Model for Advancing Asia-Pacific Security, Region-Building, and Nuclear Weapon Free Zones (NWFZs). Also, he is currently working on a new book entitled, Latin America beyond Hegemony: The Collapse of Neoliberal Domination and the Rise of Social Justice Movements and Inclusionary States.
Salvador E. Pineda
Salvador E. Pineda is originally from El Salvador and currently resides in Washington D.C. He earned his Master in Latin American Studies from the Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University. His research focuses on government institutions, international development and trade, citizen security policies as well as transitional justice in Latin America. He earned his bachelor’s degree in Political Science at the University of Maryland. As former Counselor and Alternate Representative for the Permanent Mission of El Salvador to the Organization of American States (OAS), he has wide experience advancing political, economic and social issues at multilateral levels. Prior to his work as a diplomat, Mr. Pineda spent several years working in the implementation and furthering of legal-aid programs to low income residents throughout the metropolitan region of Washington D.C. Among those, he managed foreclosure prevention and special education advocacy programs. It is this multidimensional experience that enhances his research endeavors and allows him to bring a comprehensive perspective to his analysis. Some of his academic research has appeared in Democracy & Society Journal, Revista de Estudios Centroamericanos (ECA), and others.
Dr. Francisca Reyes is an Assistant Professor of Economics at Western New Mexico University. She received her Doctorate of Economic Development from New Mexico State University. Dr. Reyes’ research covers a wide range of topics that include international economics, entrepreneurship, female labor participation, water scarcity, U.S. – Mexico border issues, and international migration. She earned her BS in Industrial Engineering from Instituto Tecnologico de Durango in Mexico, her MBA & MPA from University of Texas at El Paso. Dr. Reyes has worked with private and public organizations in Mexico and the U.S.
Dr. Kirwin Shaffer is Professor of Latin American Studies at Penn State University. He received his Ph.D. in Latin American History at the University of Kansas (1998). Dr. Shaffer is dedicated to researching the transnational anarchism in the Americas. In 2005, he published his book Anarchism and Countercultural Politics in Early Twentieth-Century Cuba (University Press of Florida). In 2013, he published Black Flag Boricuas: Anarchism, Antiauthoritarianism, and the Left in Puerto Rico, 1897-1921 (University of Illinois Press). In 2015, he co-edited another book with Geoffroy de Laforcade, titled In Defiance of Boundaries: Anarchism in Latin American History (University Press of Florida). Dr. Shaffer is currently writing a book on anarchist networks in the Caribbean region, including Panama, Mexico, Puerto Rico, Cuba and the United States.
John Stolle-McAllister is an Associate Professor of Spanish and Intercultural Communication at the University of Maryland Baltimore County. His research and teaching interests include cultural change and social movements in Latin America. He authored Mexican Social Movements and the Transition to Democracy, which analyzes two towns’ resistance to development projects that threatened their livelihoods and their sense of community. His current book project examines the development of intercultural political, community and environmental relationships in Kichwa communities in northern Ecuador in the wake of that country’s Indigenous rights movement. He earned his BA from Bates College, and his MA in Hispanic Literatures and PhD in the Comparative Studies of Discourse and Society from the University of Minnesota.
Dr. Michelle Switzer
For the last 12 years, Michelle’s work and research have focused on the impacts of Latin America’s changing political and social landscape both locally and globally. Her master’s research looked at the challenges facing indigenous civil war widows in highland Guatemala in the decade following the signing of the Peace Accords. For her doctorate, Michelle analyzed the growing tension between supporters and resisters of Uruguay’s expanding pulp and exotic tree plantation industry, paying particular attention to the ways that plantation forestry has reshaped the political and environmental landscapes and Uruguayans’ relationships with them.
Michelle is currently a Resident Anthropologist with the Insights Team at Idea Couture in Toronto. Previous posts include working as a Research Analyst for the Province of Ontario; as the coordinator for the Extractives Industry Project at Centre for Research on Latin America and the Caribbean (CERLAC), and as a Community Outreach and Communications Coordinator with the Canadian-based international development agency, Horizons of Friendship. She is a Senior Research Fellow with the Council on Hemispheric Affairs (COHA) in Washington and Vice-President on the Board of Directors for the Centre for Spanish Speaking Peoples in Toronto.
Jordan Bazak is a language teacher based in Roanoke, Virginia, specializing in Spanish and English instruction. Jordan has a Bachelor of Science in economics from George Mason University as well as minor degrees in Spanish and mathematics. His past internship positions include the Fundación Directorio Legislativo, an Argentine NGO fighting for legislative transparency, the Roanoke-Valley Alleghany Regional Planning Commission, and Roanoke City’s Department of Economic Development. In 2016, he served four months as a COHA Research Associate, managing the Washington Review on the Hemisphere and authoring over a dozen articles. Jordan is currently seeking admission to a top Ph.D. program in economics, where he hopes to focus on development challenges in Latin America. In the meantime, he will volunteer as an English teacher in Arequipa, Peru with Helping Overcome Obstacles in Peru (HOOP). Jordan specializes in the economics, history, and politics of Uruguay, Argentina, and Chile. He has also researched the indigenous languages of Southern Mexico among other topics.
Clément Doleac is a French citizen and worked for the Council on Hemispheric as Research Associate from October 2014 to February 2015 and as Research Fellow since then. He is also working with the Rights and Resources Initiative (RRI) since April 2015. He graduated from the Université Lumière Lyon 2, in France, in June 2012 with a Master Degree in Political Sociology and from the Institut d’EÉudes Politiques in Grenoble, in France, in September 2014, with a Master Degree in International Relations/Latin American Studies. During his studies, he has focused on security issues and the fear of crime in Mexico and in Colombia, two countries he lived in for nearly three years. He also studied Western Hemisphere cooperation and diplomacy and relationship between the Western Hemisphere and the European Union. Clément has an interest in Latin American affairs, foreign policy, civil and human rights, as well as sustainable development and climate change issues. Prior to joining Rights and Resources, he worked at the French embassy in Mexico, the Organization of American States in Washington D.C., as well as the international security firm Geos, in Mexico. Clément is fluent in French, Spanish and English.
Liliana Muscarella is an aspiring international researcher from Los Angeles, California, currently working at an international non-profit in Washington, D.C. Having started as a Research Associate at COHA, Liliana is thrilled to continue contributing remotely and working with the Brazil Research Unit under the direction of Aline Piva. Outside of her primary job studying the neuroscience of conflict and peacebuilding, Liliana’s research on U.S.-Latin American relations focuses on human rights, especially during political conflict, with a focus on the Brazilian coup and immigration issues from Cuba and Central America. She is particularly interested in the manipulations of politics, corruption, political violence, and the trickle-down effects of colonialism in the region. She has published articles in English and Spanish, many of which were reprinted or recognized in media outlets from Cuba to Ukraine. Liliana is a Summa Cum Laude graduate of the University of California, Santa Barbara, where she achieved bachelor’s degrees in Global Studies and Sociology and minored in Spanish. In Fall 2017, Liliana will be continuing her studies at Sciences Po, Paris School of International Affairs.
Brian Mier is a geographer, writer and development professional who has worked with ActionAid, Care and Plan. Author of Os Megaeventos Esportivos na Cidade do Rio de Janeiro e o Direito á Cidade, with Karla Moroso and Cristiano Muller (2016. CDES/Fundação Ford: Rio de Janeiro). Has lived in Brazil for 21 years, currently in São Paulo, where he edits Brasil Wire. His interests include political economy, social movements and the resurgence of the brazilian right.
Jose da Cruz
Dr. Jose de Arimateia da Cruz is a Professor of International Relations/Comparative Politics at Armstrong State University, Savannah, GA, where he teaches both undergraduate and graduate courses in Latin American and African Foreign Policy, Third World National Security, Global CyberSecurity, and Insurgency/Counterinsurgency.
Dr. da Cruz is also an Adjunct Research Professor at the U.S. Army War College, Carlisle, PA. and Research Associate of the Brazil Research Unit at the Council on Hemispheric Affairs (COHA) in Washington, D.C.. Dr. da Cruz has a visiting teaching appointment at the Center for Latin American Studies (CLAS) at the School of Economics in Prague, Czech Republic. He has served as visiting professor at the University of Stavanger, Norway, and La Serena Universidad in La Serena, Chile.
Dr. da Cruz holds a B.A. in Philosophy & Political Science from Wright State University, Dayton, OH; an M.A. in Professional Communications and Leadership from Armstrong State University, Savannah, GA; a M.A. in Political Science/Political Philosophy from Miami University, Oxford, OH; an M.S. in Criminal Justice with an emphasis in cyber affairs and security from Armstrong State University, and he is completing a Master of Public Health (MPH) at Armstrong State University. Dr. da Cruz earned his Ph.D. in Political Science (African & Latin American Politics) from Miami University, Oxford, Ohio.
Igor Drumond is a Civil Servant and work in Brasília at Rio de Janeiro State’s Public Defender’s Office before the Superior and Supreme Courts. Has a bachelor degree in Law from Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro and has been conducting independent research in Human and Civil Rights, particularly regarding Equality and the Rule of Law’s Coherence and Integrity, with interest in Theory of Law, and is pursuing the opportunity of a Master’s degree on how income inequality between powerful civil servants and unpowered ones affects society. He’s also part of Digital Culture and Democracy academic research group (Cultura Digital e Democracia – CDD) at Centro Universitário de Brasília (UniCEUB) about Democracy, Privacy, Net Neutrality and Internet rights. Igor also writes for his own blog Desarrazoado, on topics of Coherence, Integrity, Equality and the Rule of Law in an accessible way for the general public.
Emma specializes in Political Sciences focusing on Latin American affairs. She received her Bachelor in European and International Affairs at the University of Versailles in France in 2014, graduating with high honors. By September 2017 she will graduate from the Latin American Master’s Program of the Institute of Political Sciences “Sciences Po” in Grenoble, France. She is completing a MA thesis exploring environmental and sustainability policies in Colombia under EU cooperation, and their incidence on forest governance. A French national fluent in English and Spanish with good knowledge of German, Emma has long term experiences with human rights and international cooperation organizations in the US and Colombia, as well as Europe (Bosnia Herzegovina, France, Spain and Germany). Her fields of expertise are political sciences, development studies, Latin American and Colombian affairs, and environmental issues. She worked for the Council on Hemispheric as Research Associate from April 2016 and as Research Fellow since June 2017. After her traineeship with the European Union in Colombia, she aspires to further specialize in rural and agricultural development in La Sorbonne, Paris.